The Santa Cruz' folklore is the result of a remarkable fusion of two civilizations, Spanish and native American, specially the Guarani civilization. People from Santa Cruz are known by the name "Camba", which means "strong man" in Guarani.
Moreover, the "Guaycurúes", the "Ishir" (better known as Zamucos or Chamacocos), the "Ayoreo" and the "Chiquitos" as well as the "Guarayos" in the north area, all of them influenced by the Guaranies, were just a few of several ethnic groups that were the ancestors of the current population of Santa Cruz.
The Jesuits largely influenced this area, mainly the region known as Chiquitania. A rich architectural and musical heritage remains very well preserved nowadays and instruments such as the violin and the harp are some examples of it.
Since a large part of Santa Cruz is located in the Chaco-Pampeana plain, in the area of the Chaco Boreal, this contributed to the cultural exchange between South and North. Therefore, the "chacarera", the "zamba", among other dances, are an important part of the local folklore.
The guitar and bass drum are also popular musical instruments in the area. Regarding the language, the form or dialect of Spanish spoken in Santa Cruz is influenced by indigenous words. Addressing people as "vos" is also a major feature of this culture.